Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE)

CoDE is a four year interdisciplinary programme of research concerned with understanding changing ethnic inequalities and identities.

Understanding the changes in ethnic relations

Our team has over 20 academics, a number of affiliate members and PhD students working from Glasgow, Oxford and Manchester. We also have a number of valued partners.

CoDE utilises a variety of research techniques and tools to ensure that the potential economic and social benefits of our research are realised. Our focus is on the changes within ethnic groups (their internal structures and formulations of identities) and their external relationships and position in British society.

Bringing together sociologists, demographers, historians, geographers, and political scientists, we are researching:

  • how class, gender, generation, age and place produce different experiences and visions of ethnicity across the UK;
  • how changes in ethnic identities over time were expressed through the emergence of new or mixed identities, as well as the shifting significance of language and religion as a marker of ethnicity;
  • the significance of the context of emigration and arrival in shaping ethnic identities and the long-term trajectories of migrants in British society;
  • how major social changes in Britain’s economic and political structures have impacted on the ethnic inequalities experienced in employment and politics today.

Project website


  • Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)

Grant amount


Manchester people

Affiliates and partners